And in those three stories lies a conundrum; how to protect the environment vs. having unwanted medications in the house that increase the risk of intentional and accidental ingestion. To reduce the risk of accidental poisoning by medications, it was at one time advocated to flush unwanted medication down the toilet. This solution was simple and easy. However, at the turn of the century, data began to appear which showed that trace amounts of pharmaceutical drugs were being found in rivers and drinking water around the country. Soon afterwards, multiple studies showing that biological changes were occurring in wildlife located downstream from pharmaceutical plants or urban waste treatment plants were published.