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Rabies can be found all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, over 55,000 people die each year from rabies worldwide, with 95% of deaths occurring in Asia and Africa.

In the US, more than 90% of all animal cases reported are from wild animals rather than domestic animals. Also, the number of human deaths has declined from 100 in 1929 to less than 2 cases per year now.

The most frequent animals to be tested were bats, dogs, cats, skunks and raccoons (animals were tested if they exhibited signs of rabies or bit a person or domestic animal). Animals in Illinois that are considered low risk for rabies infection include squirrels, mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits.

Animal Infection

When an animal contracts the rabies virus from a bite it travels through the nerves to the brain. The animal appears fine during this incubation period which can last from 1-3 months. During the incubation period, the animal cannot transmit rabies because the virus is not in the saliva. Later in the disease, the virus moves from the brain to the salivary glands and into the saliva. At this time the animal may show signs of a rabies infection.

Signs and symptoms of rabies in animals:

Phase 1: Prodromal

  • Chewing at bite site
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Change in tone of dog’s bark

Phase 2: Furious

  • Craving to eat anything
  • Irritability
  • No fear of natural enemies
  • Erratic behavior

Phase 3: Paralytic

  • Appearance of choking
  • Drooping of lower jaw (dogs)
  • Inability to swallow leading to drooling and foaming saliva (i.e. foaming at mouth)

Signs and symptoms of rabies in humans:

  • Flu like symptoms (fever, chills, muscle aches)
  • Irritability and agitation
  • General weakness
  • Pain, itching or tingling at the bite site
  • Delirium and hallucinations
  • Seizures
  • Paralysis

Once clinical signs listed above are shown, the disease is almost always fatal.



If you suspect that you have been exposed to rabies, wash the bite site well with soap and water, and seek medical attention immediately. The physician together with the local health department will decide if rabies prophylaxis is needed.

Rabies prophylaxis treatment is comprised of two parts. First, human rabies immune globulin is given one time to provide immediate antibodies against rabies. (This provides protection until the body can produce antibodies of its own following vaccination.) Secondly, the rabies vaccine is given as a series of 4 injections over 2 weeks.  The first dose is given on the day of exposure and repeated on days 3, 7 and 14. It is highly effective and provides optimum prevention from developing rabies if given as soon as possible following an exposure. This may seem unpleasant but it is much better than the 21 shots that were required several decades ago.


It’s best to be safe and prevent exposure altogether. Make sure your pets are vaccinated. Humans do not need to be vaccinated unless they work with animals that could get rabies. Keep pets, yourself and others away from wildlife or stray animals, especially ones that are behaving oddly. Never touch those animals, or try to nurse any sick wild animals back to health.


Poison Center HelplineCalls are free and confidential.

  1. In Case of Emergency

    Call 911 if someone is unconscious or is having difficulty breathing.

  2. Remain Calm

    Most poison emergencies can be resolved quickly over the phone.

  3. Call the Helpline

    Call 1-800-222-1222 if you are concerned that you or someone else has been exposed to a potentially harmful substance.